C10.6.2 Neurologic Disorders of the Head and Face
• Epilepsy, especially clonic-tonic seizures (atypical absence).
• Paroxysmal hemicrania: sudden onset of unilateral sensorineural hearing loss (may be accompanied by vertigo) with associated nausea, vomiting, weakness or diplopia; may resolve spontaneously or with treatment.
• Etiologies vary widely; usually multifactorial but sometimes idiopathic. May occur in patients after exposure to certain chemicals (e.g., methanol), medications (e.g., quinidine), drugs (especially narcotics) or toxins such as carbon monoxide exposure during pregnancy; rare familial form is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait for which there are no known mutations identified to date; often misdiagnosed as migraine when they have a late onset and cause clinical symptoms similar to migraines instead of seizures . The most common causes include idiopathic epilepsy , drug-induced epilepsy [3–4] and myoclonic encephalopathy . When it occurs postoperatively in children following surgery on the midline facial nerve it is called Bell’s palsy . Sometimes bilateral facial palsies can occur following regional anesthesia in dentistry or endoscopy procedures in general practice settings causing a double vision zig